[Note: This article contains substantial excerpts from King James' The Trew Law of Free Monarchies. Reading helps for Jacobean typography and spelling can be found at this link (just cursor down a little on that page).]


King James wrote a treatise entitled, "The Trew Law of Free Monarchies: or The Reciprock and mutuall duetie betwixt a free King and his naturall Subiects." In The Trew Law of Free Monarchies, King James said that next to the knowledge of God, the most necessary thing to be known by the people of any land is the grounds (or basis) of their allegiance to their established form of government.

Why did he say this?

People have been tricked over and over again through the centuries to rebel and change their government, to the "wracke and overthrow of sundry flourishing Common-wealths...". (Workes, p. 193)

And how are the masses of the people tricked?

Someone seduces their opinion to make them think that their way of government is not good--some seducer makes them discontent (in the case of the United States, seducers often go right past the parents and indoctrinate the children through television and the school system (e.g. textbooks that consistently find fault in American history and the Christian faith (Note: Roman Catholicism and its heresies, bloody Inquisitions, Crusades, etc. is not Christian although passed off as such these days) and magnify--in glowing terms--the history and legends of just about any and every other country of the world--as an educator, I have consistently seen and read of this practice). And then, in time, the discontented, broiling, ignorant masses begin to believe that

  1. better days will come if they get rid of the government that they have and
  2. that something better than what they have can and will be installed.

Then a universal rebellion erupts to overthrow the government (led by some traitors and/or some imported thugs with weapons).

King James says that all such rebellions are disastrous.

King James' stated purpose for writing The Trew Law of Free Monarchies was to help people understand the nature of the relationship between themselves and their king (or government). I glanced at The Trew Law a few years ago, and even took some notes, but now I see that I did not completely understand what I was reading--but now at this stage where I see Americans talking like Communists and speaking against our wonderful Constitution, I am beginning to understand a lot more about what King James was saying. King James mentioned that this strategy of overthrowing nations by raising discontent has been employed for centuries on end and been the cause of many rebellions (The Trew Law was published around 1598).

The end is in sight. The metamorphisis of America from a free country to dictatorship is almost complete. The masses of people in this county, in general, seem ready to accept any change--whether political, religious, etc. There is a free for all. Many have become accustomed to ignoring the truth, including, and perhaps especially, professed Christians. They will watch tv, witness an abomination, and keep on watching anyway. As they sit and watch and drink in the messages, the people are being tricked in many ways and THEIR OPINIONS ARE BEING SEDUCED by television, school system, the "experts," etc. The focal point of this article is the attack on the United States Constitution (which is like the king of U.S. citizens), the law of our land, and the replacement of it with a communist ideology in the minds of the seduced and compromised.

Opinions are being seduced daily on the television, in schools, in newspapers, etc. with various articles, teachings, stories, movies, etc. The masses are being taught to be critical of our founders, our religion, etc.--and even our racial majority (which dwindles), white people (as if it is time for everybody else but them [Aside: for those that do not know, I am a black person married to a black person]).

Amongst other things, the masses are being taught to be dissatisfied with and critical of the very foundation of our government, the United States Constitution (In reading through materials for teaching my daughter, I have repeatedly seen this for myself.) --the document that secures our basic freedoms as U.S. citizens and has served as a model for freedom and hope for the entire earth.

I hasten to add here that my hope and trust is not in the Constitution, but I do appreciate it and the freedoms that it affords to U.S. citizens. The beast is coming and we are seeing his way being prepared before our very eyes. We are commanded to watch and to not be deceived. We can, and should, know what is happening around us.

Americans are falling for the same old trick that King James wrote of. The seduced opinion of the masses (there can be no seduction without a seducer) makes them dissatisfied with the wrong thing. Instead of being dissatisfied with their sins and wicked ways and corruptions (e.g., television, love of ease, abortion, etc.), they are turning against what can help and seeking to tear it down. [Of note: The false church has been a great help to the seducers. The people do not feel that the church has the answers. They have seen the hypocrisy and listened to the drone of the speeches often called sermons.]

Part One: Dissatisfaction with the government.
Part Two: Replace the government.

Universal dissatisfaction
Universal rebellion

The rebellion does not mean that people must take up arms, they can just simply desire and accept that which is at odds with our form of government.

From my notes:

Communism as a map and framework for oppression. Codifies principles of treason and rebellion under the guise of helping the little people. A vehicle by which universal rebellion can be introduced and sustained.

[It is a] deception--under the guise of helping the little people, it stirs them up to rebel against their own nation instead of protect it. Then an outside force can take over their nation with practically no resistance from the people.

People with seduced opinions will go as far as to rebel against and overthrow their own government and protection as they listen to those who preach overthrow and change and whip up the seduced opinions into a fury. Somehow the guns and ammo appear and a coup de tat in upon the nation. Western nations are overthrown, washed up and invaded and overcome.

Communist ideology has served as an instrument and vehicle for stirring up many people with ideas of "freedom," "equality," "justice," and "unity." This plan for "universal rebellion" has been used around the world on sinful people feeling the effects of sin but wanting peace. They will grab at anything that promises peace--as long as it is not the truth.

King James said this in The Trew Law of Free Monarchies--

"...the seduced opinion of the multitude...procured the wracke and overthrow of sundry flourishing Common-wealths; and heaped heauy calamities, threatning vtter destruction vpon others.

In terms of destroyed commonwealths, King James said that THE LACK OF KNOWLEDGE OF THE ALLEGIANCE SUBJECTS ARE DUE TO THE GOVERNMENT IS "...THE ONLY SPRING from which have flowed so many endless calamitites, miseries, and confusions, as is better felt by many, then the cause thereof well known, and deeply considered." As mentioned in Deception 23, Abraham Lincoln warned us to teach our children about our form of government or else America would be destroyed by suicide. He said that we Americans would bring about our own ruin. We did not rightly teach our children about our God or our government (and the way that it works and what it is based on--each man's capacity for self-government instead of a big government telling a bad people what to do).


Some Christians do not wish to speak about the Constitution, but the Bible teaches that the powers that be are ordained of God and that we are to obey every ordinance of man for the Lord's sake. A person should know how their government is constructed. The United States Constitution is the law of the land. It may not be perfect, but it has permitted much freedom for Americans and served as a shining example to the entire earth. Nations have tried to pattern themselves after it. But now the Constitution is under attack from American politicians, judges and citizens themselves. I have heard and read this for myself (we'll take a look at an example further down). From the politicians to the man on the street, many now denigrate the Constitution, a document that has served as a wall protecting our personal freedoms and protecting us from tyranny and a dictatorship. What turned Americans away from their Constitution? How did this happen? One may not know all the exact mechanisms by which this occurred, but the bottom line is that the opinion of the masses has been seduced. Let's look at one aspect of the problem.

Many are ignorant of how government works, and, instead of desiring a government that gives us freedom to be self-governing and industrious, the people crave a government that doles/gives out scraps from month to month so that they can eat (and creates a superabundance of regulations and jails to keep some of the superabundance of criminals off the streets so that the ones not in jail can enjoy their treats). But nowadays that is not all--there is now a descent to the next level down. Those that live off of entitlements (welfare, food stamps, WIC, Social Security*, etc.) somehow and someway, have been taught to crave to have the same standard of living as those who work hard, save their money, and buy a house. They have been led to believe that all men should have the same things--and because they covet/desire what somebody else has, these seducing words have found fertile soil in their hearts. They want what others have and will cast their vote for whoever promises them treats at a cost of practically nothing to them. Americans are becoming Communists before our very eyes. These people may or may not know that they are now Marxists/Communists in their minds (though it seems that this truth is now crystalizing in people's minds and one can even hear communist doctrines in the streets.). They are in full agreement with theft--taking from those that have so that those that want can have somebody else's riches.

*[Note: In terms of "Social Security" working people may have been forced to pay into the Social Security system, but instead of saving what they had left and avoiding debt, they decided to rely on Social Security for their retirement check. In other cases, some people's hard-earned savings have been eaten up by inflation/high prices, etc. In both situations, the people need help and are too financially compromised and concerned with the matter of living than to objectively look and see what is happening around them--they need their check so that they can eat and have a place to live...Oh for a paid-off piece of land, the ability to live off of it, a squirrel or possum for the stew pot, a piece of acornbread, wild greens, clean water, and some crab apples...]


But wait, the problem is far more complex than the "have nots" (or the "I want what you haves") desiring the riches of the "haves". We are at a stage and in an environment where many people (the "have nots") CANNOT thrive because they have been

They are told that college (more mis-education) is the answer, but the people were already miseducated and undereducated and they cannot get through college--many are not even getting through high school--and this is through no fault of their own. The obfuscation system has confounded the people. They have been reduced to ever-live in dependency and/or serfdom. They cannot ever rise in the closed system, and they know it. Practically everything that they want (which is what they see on tv) is out of reach for them. [Note: The closed system must, of necessity, self-destruct for the wages of sin is death--the closed system is sinful system outside of God's laws where man makes the rules under the god of this world, the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience, the devil. Whether rich or poor, black or white, people are being deceived by the deceitfulness of sin and they are experiencing the brunt realities and frustrations that come from the closed system. Those that repent and believe on the Lord Jesus Christ and obey his word are freed from the spirit of the closed system and come into the kingdom of God. And while they find that they still live in this world, they are not of this world and are no longer deceived.]

The people cannot bear the burden--they are sick and cannot work and they have no homestead to fall back on; they are old and need their government check (they did not save or inflation is eating up their savings, so that even grandma might be on the corner in her wheelchair protesting with a picket sign demanding her Social Security check); others are lazy and the law says that they have a right to be taken care of by people who work while they stay at home; others never learned a skill while they were young, energetic and stuck in classrooms doing boring paperwork and cannot make enough money to live on their own; some are strung out on drugs and prospects for the future are dim, etc. The numbers of these people grow. Children are being taught "sex education" (on television and in school) and more bastard children are to be expected and more diseased people. I read of one woman on welfare who spoke to her 15 year old daughter on this wise, "When are you going to start having your children so that you can get in the system?"

Those in the system are told (through various channels) to look around and see that there are some Americans that do not seem to struggle like they do. They are told that these are "bad guys" and the cause of all their troubles. The "bad guys" are greedy (but the "bad guys" are footing the bill for their checks and prison meals and schools and government--and the "bad guys" are also offering jobs to those who want to work for a living). As they look at the "bad guys," they envy and hate the "bad guys" because the "bad guys" seem to be doing well and their families may even be somewhat intact (but some of those "bad guys" came from the streets and are just receiving the blessings that come when one repents and tries to follow God's commandments)...one could go on and on and easily see how the masses are easily turned against those that seem to be doing better than they are. They want to sin but they want peace, too (but there is no peace to the wicked, Isaiah 48:22), and are being taught to demand it--on their terms [Note: this desire for peace is not limited to just those who accept entitlements, it extends to all sinners]. This manufactured strife between the "have" and "have nots" is sometimes called "class warfare" and its goal is to stir up jealousy, hatred, and strife--and every orchestra has a conductor--

"Look at them. They smile as you suffer. That's not fair. Everybody is equal, we must redistribute the wealth and then there will be equality, peace, justice, and fairness."

Those who are orchestrating this calamity know just what strings to play--their crooked music stirring up wrath and discontent can be heard all over the world,

A look around and one sees wrath, wrath, wrath against Americans--particularly white male Americans (I am an unprejudiced black person married to a black person and am concerned about all people) and Christian Americans. The wrath we see does not seem to be anti-Catholic in nature (even though we keep hearing about "anti-Catholicism" the pope and his church seem to be doing just fine), it seems to be "anti-Protestant" and "anti-white man" in nature (e.g., attacks against the Bible, our country's founders, hate laws/speech charges leveled against people who are telling the historical truth, etc.). I recently heard the term, "anti-Protestant" for the first time. I had never heard it before. It is found in a book entitled, "Through Flood and Flame: Adventures and Perils of Protestant Heroes" by Henry Charles Moore, apparently first published in the late 1800s. In the account of a Dr. Robert Reid Kalley, this is what we read:

"...the priests and the Press kept the anti-Protestant feeling at fever-point. One newspaper urged that the old punishments should be revived, and that Protestants should be burned alive."
p. 110, A Beka edition

Even when I was in school and unsaved, I can remember hearing the term "WASP" derisively used in the context of my studies. "WASP" is an acronymn for "White Anglo-Saxon Protestant"--I did not know the true significance of it then, but now it sounds rather like sour grapes and stirring up wrath against that group that founded and built up this nation and understands how it is supposed to work.


The sons and daughters of the middle and uppers classes can become Marxists/Communists as a result of being educated by Marxists (including Marxist thought which can come through various channels such as television, school, fiction, non-fiction, music, etc.). There are people want things to be "fair" in this world--but they want to figure out a solution outside of the God of the Bible. Marxism is the humanist answer that they have been presented with and that they have chosen to believe will remedy the problem--after enough brainwashing, the Marxist explanation seems seems plausible enough to them and it does not require the God of the Bible or his requirement to repent of their sins, believe the gospel, and obey his word. For all their schooling and worldly "advantages", their opinion is also seduced. They are under deception. There is a way that seemeth right unto a man, but the end thereof are the ways of death.


Right now in America there is a war against our wonderful Constitution. I have seen this with my own two eyes--on the streets, in school books, from politicians--in a law school classroom. In that classroom (I watched a video) the professor gave students a historical example of revolution and the subsequent overthrow of the government, and the replacement of the government with a new government. He then soon after drops the bomb with just enough pause for emphasis and speaks on this wise--

"What about the Constitution? Can we just throw it out?"

Americans can't speak back, they can't say "Treason," they just can't. Maybe they do not even know what it really means.

TREASON, n. ...the offense of attempting to overthrow the government of the state to which the offender owes allegiance, or of betraying the state into the hands of a foreign power.

Just like the students in that classroom, Americans, perhaps by and large, just sit there and listen and let those initial reservations be changed into treason in their minds as well. "After all," the potential lawyer thinks, "I have to pass this class to get out of law school." By the time law school, the newspaper, and the tv get done with him, he will be twofold worse than the worst law professors that he ever studied under. He too will be perfectly conditioned, like his fellowcitizens, to ignore the truth. He may one day become a judge in a courtroom--by that time he may actually despise and ignore the Constitution, the law of the land, and seek its overthrow himself. And if he be a judge that loves money, bribes for unconstitutional judgments only provide additional incentive to judge in accordance with his treasonous mindset.


Americans do not understand many things, but they don't know it. They think that they are an informed people because they

but things such as these are brainwashing propaganda channels. They are the very means by which seducing messages are delivered. People hear these messages over and over from people they respect and trust and unconditionally accept the messages as being true. Americans' opinions are the opinions that have been fed to them through the propaganda channels. Their opinions are not based on cold hard facts being compared to the word of God for testing. Their opinions are based on what they hear from the propaganda channels. They pick and choose which propaganda sources they like best. From those, they will daily download databits into their heads as they watch television, read, listen to the radio, etc. Their opinions are seduced by means of the messages. The downloads are in their mind and by them they make decisions. The downloads not only color their thoughts, they are their thoughts--and they pride themselves in being well-informed, knowing all the issues and players on the world's stage...

Americans are being seduced and deceived into throwing away our great Constitution which gave us world-renowned freedom and protection. And for what are they willing to change our Constitution? Promises of peace and unity in a "new age" (what if there is something in the old that they need to know?)--by peace he shall destroy many.

Americans want to sin and watch sin, but they want peace while they are pursuing wickedness.

But the wicked are like the troubled sea, when it cannot rest, whose waters cast up more and dirt. Isaiah 57:20

There is no peace to the wicked (reference Isaiah 48:22; 57:21). But Americans still want peace, and, unwilling to leave sin, they continue their search for peace--and, by good words and fair speeches, men rise up to deceive them with words of "peace." Sinful people choose to believe seducers and deceivers who promise peace and a life in sin.

From Webster's 1828 Dictionary [emphases ours]--

SEDUCER, n. --One that seduces; one that by temptation or arts, entices another to depart from the path of rectitude an duty; pre-eminently , one that by flattery, promises or falsehood, persuades a female to surrender her chastity. The seducer of a female is little less criminal than the murderer.
2. That which leads astray; that which entices to evil.

SEDUCE, v.t. -- To draw aside or entice from the path of rectitude and duty in any manner, by flattery, promises, bribes, or otherwise; to tempt and lead to iniquity; to corrupt; to deprave.

SEDUCED, pp. -- Drawn or enticed from virtue; corrupted; depraved.

SEDUCEMENT n. -- The act of seducing; seduction. 2. The means employed to seduce; the arts of flattery, falsehood and deception.

SEDUCTION, n. -- The act of seducing, or of enticing from the path of duty...

[Note: Seductive messages are broadcast through television, the school system, newspapers, books, movies, entertainments, etc.
Seducers have many means by which to trick the people, enticing them away from the path of rectitude and duty.]

DECEIVER, n. -- One who deceives; one who leads into error; a cheat; an impostor.

[Note: A deceiver can deceive from any quarter, any realm--church system, school system, government, music, science, agriculture, etc. The only way that a person cannot be deceived is to believe God's holy word, the Authorized King James Bible. His word is truth and the devil and his agents are churning out counterfeit Bible versions, flooding the market with error so that people will not know the truth and be saved and free in Christ.]

DECEIVE, v.t. -- To mislead the mind; to cause to err; to cause to believe what is false, or disbelieve what is true; to impose on; to delude.

...The attack against the Constitution is everywhere--although King James wrote about free monarchies in The Trew Law, one can just as well insert the word, "Constitution" in key spots in the treatise as he reads The Trew Law of Free Monarchies: or The Reciprock and mutuall dutie betwixt a free King and his naturall Subiects.


The following is a substantial excerpt from, "The Trew Law of Free Monarchies: or The Reciprock and Mvtvall Dvetie Betwixt a Free King, and His Subjects," by King James, written in approximately 1598 (Can be found in King James' Workes beginning on page 191). [Note: For a short primer on reading Jacobean typography, go to The Workes summary page.]






naturall Subiects.


Accept, I pray you (my deare countreymen) as thankefully this Pamphlet that I offer vnto you, as lovingly it is written for your weale. I would be loath both to be faschious, and fectlesse: And therefore, if it be not sententious, at least it is short. It may be yee misse many things that yee looke for in it: But for excuse thereof, consider rightly that I onely lay downe herein the trew grounds, to teach you the right-way, without wasting time vpon refuting the adversaries. And yet I trust, if ye will take narrow tent, ye shall finde most of their great gunnes payed home againe, either with contrary conclusions, or tacite objections, suppose in a dairned forme, and indirectly: For my intention is to instruct, and not irritat, if I may eschew it. The profite I would wish you to make of it, is, as well so to frame all your actions according to these grounds, as may confirme you in the course of honest and obedient Subiects to your King in all times comming, as also, when ye shall fall in purpose with any that shall praise or excuse the by-past rebellions that brake foorth either in this countrey, or in any other, ye shall herewith bee armed against their Sirene songs, laying their particular examples to the square of these grounds. Whereby yee shall soundly keepe the course of righteous Jvdgement, decerning wisely of euery action onely according to the qualitie thereof; and not according to your pre-ivdged conceits of the committers: So shall ye, by reaping profit to your selves, turne my paine into pleasure. But least the whole Pamphlet runne out at the gaping mouth of this Preface, if it were any more enlarged; I end, with committing you to God, and me to your charitable censures.

C. [foreign characters]




The Reciprock and mutuall duetie betwixt a
free King and his naturall Subiects.

AS there is not a thing so necessarie to be knowne by the people of any land, next the knowledge of their God, as the right knowledge of their alleageance, according to the forme of gouernement established among them, especially in a Monarchie (which forme of government, as resembling the Diuinitie, approcheth nearest to perfection, as all the learned and wise men from the beginning haue agreed vpon; Vnitie being the perfection of all things,) So hath the ignorance, and (which is worse) the seduced opinion of the multitude blinded by them, who thinke themselues able to teach and instruct the ignorants, procured the wracke and overthrow of sundry flourishing Common-wealths; and heaped heauy calamities, threatning vtter destruction vpon others. And the smiling successe, that vnlawfull rebellions haue oftentimes had against Princes in aages past (such hath bene the misery, and iniquitie of the time) hath by way of practice strengthened many in their errour: albeit there cannot be a more deceiueable argument; then to judge ay the iustnesse of the cause by the euent thereof; as hereafter shalbe proued more at length. And among others, no Common-wealth, that euer hath bene since the beginning, hath had greater need of the trew knowledge of this ground, then this our so long disordered, and distracted Common-wealth hath: the misknowledge hereof being the onely spring, from whence haue flowed so many endlesse calamities, miseries, and confusions, as is better felt by many, then the cause thereof well knowne, and deepely considered. The naturall zeale therefore, that I beare to this my natiue countrie, with the great pittie I haue to see the so-long disturbance thereof for lacke of the trew knowledge of this ground (as I haue said before) hath compelled me at last to breake silence, to discharge my conscience to you my deare country men herein, that knowing the ground from whence these your many endlesse troubles haue proceeded, as well as ye haue already too-long tasted the bitter fruites thereof, ye may by knowledge, and eschewing of the cause escape, and diuert the lamentable effects that euer necessarily follow there upon. I haue chosen then onely to set downe in this short Treatise, the trew grounds of the mutuall duetie, and alleageance betwixt a free and absolute Monarche, and his people; not to trouble your patience with answering the contrary propositions, which some haue not bene ashamed to set downe in writ, to the poysoning of infinite number of simple soules, and their owne perpetuall, and well deserued infamie: For by answering them, I could not haue eschewed whiles to pick, and byte wel saltly their persons; which would rather haue bred contentiousnesse among the readers (as they had liked or misliked) then sound instruction of the trewth: Which I protest to him that is the searcher of all hearts, is the onely marke that I shoot at herein.

First then, I will set downe the trew grounds, whereupon I am to build, out of the Scriptures, since Monarchie is the trew paterne of Diuinitie, as I haue already said: next, from the fundamental Lawes of our owne Kingdome, which nearest must concerne vs: thirdly, from the law of Nature, by diuers similitudes drawne out of the same: and will conclude syne by answering the most weighty and appearing incommodities that can be obiected.

The Princes duetie to his Subiects is so clearely set downe in many places of the Scriptures, and so openly confessed by all the good Princes, according to their oath in their Coronation, as not needing to be long therein, I shall as shortly as I can runne through it.

Kings are called Gods by the prophetical King Dauid, because they sit vpon GOD his Throne in the earth, and haue the count of their administration to giue vnto him. Their office is, To minister Iustice and Iudgement to the people, as the same Dauid saith: To aduance the good, and punish the euill, as he likewise saith: To establish good Lawes to his people, and procure obedience to the same as diuers good Kings of Iudah did: To procure the peace of the people, as the same Dauid saith: To decide all controuersies that can arise among them, as Salomon did: To be the Minister of God for the weale of them that doe well, and as the minister of God, to take vengeance vpon them that doe evill, as S. Paul saith. And finally, As a good Pastour, to goe out and in before his people as is said in the first of Samuel: That through the Princes prosperitie, the peoples peace may be procured, as Ieremie saith.

And therefore in the Coronation of our owne Kings, as well as of euery Christian Monarche, they giue their Oath, first to maintaine the Religion presently professed within their countrie, according to their lawes, whereby it is established, and to punish all those that should presse to alter, or disturbe the profession thereof; And next to maintaine all the lowable and good Lawes made by their predecessours: to see them put in execution, and the breakers and violaters thereof, to be punished, according to the tenour of the same: And lastly, to maintaine the whole countrey, and euery state therein, in all their ancient Priuiledges and Liberties, as well against all forreine enemies, as among themselues: And shortly to procure the weale and flourishing of his people, not onely in maintaining and putting to execution the olde lowable lawes of the countrey, and by establishing of new (as necessitie and euill maners will require) but by all other meanes possible to fore-see and preuent all dangers; that are likely to fall vpon them, and to maintaine concord, wealth, and ciuilitie among them, as a louing Father, and careful watchman, caring for them more then for himselfe, knowing himselfe to be ordained for them, and they not for him; and therefore countable to that great God, who placed him as his lieutenant ouer them, vpon the perill of his soule to procure the weale of both soules and bodies, as farre as in him lieth, of all them that are committed to his charge. And this oath in the Coronation is the clearest, ciuill, and fundamentall Law, whereby the Kings office is properly defined.

By the Law of Nature the King becomes a naturall Father to all his Lieges at his Coronation: And as the Father of his fatherly duty is bound to care for the nourishing, education, and vertuous gouernment of his children; euen so is the king bound to care for all his subiects. As all the toile and paine that the father can take for his children, will be thought light and well bestowed by him, so that the effect thereof redound to their profite and weale; so ought the Prince to doe towards his people. As the kindly father ought to foresee all inconuenients and dangers that may arise towards his children, and though with the hazard of his owne person presse to preuent the same; so ought the King towards his people. As the fathers wrath and correction vpon any of his children that offendeth, ought to be by a fatherly chastisement seasoned with pitie, as long as there is any hope of amendment in them; so ought the King towards any of his Lieges that offend in that measure. And shortly, as the Fathers chiefe ioy ought to be in procuring his childrens welfare, reioycing at their weale, sorrowing and pitying at their euill, to hazard for their safetie, trauell for their rest, wake for their sleepe; and in a word, to thinke that his earthly felicitie and life standeth and liueth more in them, nor in himselfe; so ought a good Prince thinke of his people.

As to the other branch of this mutuall and reciprock band, is the duety and alleageance that the Lieges owe to their King: the ground whereof, I take out of the words of Samuel, dited by Gods Spirit, when God had giuen him commandement to heare the peoples voice in choosing and annointing them a King. And because that place of Scripture being well understood, is so pertinent for our purpose, I haue insert herein the very words of the Text.

9 Now therefore hearken to their voice: howbeit yet testifie unto them, and shew them the maner of the King, that shall raigne ouer them.
10 So Samuel tolde all the wordes of the Lord vnto the people that asked a King of him.
11 And he said, This shall be the maner of the King that shall raigne ouer you: he will take your sonnes, and appoint them to his Charets, and to be his horsemen, and some shall runne before his Charet.
12 Also, hee will make them his captaines ouer thousands, and captaines ouer fifties, and to eare his ground, and to reape his haruest, and to make instruments of warre, and the things that serue for his charets:
13 Hee will also take your daughters, and make them Apothicaries, and Cookes, and Bakers.
14 And hee will take your fields, and your vineyards, and your best Olive trees, and give them to his servants.
15 And he will take the tenth of your seed, and of your Vineyards, and give it to his Eunuches, and to his servants.
16 And he will take your men seruants, and your maid-seruants, and the chief of your yong men, and your asses, and put them to his worke.
17 He wil take the tenth of your sheepe: and ye shall be his servants.
18 And ye shall cry out at that day, because of your King, whom ye haue chosen you: and the Lord God will not heare you at that day.
19 But the people would not heare the voice of Samuel, but did say: Nay, but there shalbe a King ouer vs.
20 And we also will be like all other Nations, and our King shall iudge vs and goe out before vs, and fight our battels.

That these words, and discourses of Samuel were dited by Gods Spirit, it needs no further probation, but that it is a place of Scripture; since the whole Scripture is dited by that inspiration, as Paul saith: which ground no good Christian will, or dare denie. Whereupon it must necessarily follow, that these speeches proceeded not from any ambition in Samuel, as one loath to quite the reines that he so long had ruled, and therefore desirous, by making odious the government of a King, to disswade the people from their farther importunate crauing of one: For, as the text proueth it plainly, he then conueened them to giue them a resolute grant of their demand, as God by his owne mouth commanded him, saying,

Hearken to the voice of the people.

And to presse to disswade them from that, which he then came to grant vnto them, were a thing very impertinent in a wise man; much more in the Prophet of the most high God. And likewise, it well appeared in all the course of his life after, that his so long refusing of their sute before came not of any ambition in him: which he well proued in praying, & as it were importuning God for the weale of Saul. Yea, after God had declared his reprobation vnto him, yet he desisted not, while God himselfe was wrath at his praying, and discharged his fathers suit in that errand. And that these words of Samuel were not vttered as a prophecie of Saul their first Kings defection, it well appeareth, as well because we heare no mention made in the Scripture of any his tyrannie and oppression, (which, if it had beene, would not haue been left unpainted out therein, as well as his other faults were, as in a trew mirrour of all the Kings behauiours, whom it describeth) as likewise in respect that Saul was chosen by God for his vertue, and meet qualities to gouerne his people: whereas his defection sprung after-hand from the corruption of his owne nature, & not through any default in God, whom they that thinke so, would make as a step-father to his people, in making wilfully a choise of the vnmeetest for governing them, since the election of that King lay absolutely and immediatly in Gods hand. But by the contrary it is plaine, and euident, that this speech of Samuel to the people, was to prepare their hearts before the hand to the due obedience of that King, which God was to giue vnto them; and therefore opened vp vnto them, what might be the intollerable qualities that might fall in some of their kings, thereby preparing them to patience, not to resist to Gods ordinance: but as he would haue said; Since God hath granted your importunate suit in giuing you a king, as yee haue else committed an errour in shaking off Gods yoke, and ouer-hastie seeking of a King; so beware yee fall not into the next, in casting off also rashly that yoke, which God at your earnest suite hath laid vpon you, how hard that euer it seeme to be: For as ye could not haue obtained one without the permission and ordinance of God, so may yee no more, fro hee be once set ouer you, shake him off without the same warrant. And therefore in time arme yourselues with patience and humilitie, since he that hath the only power to make him, hath the onely power to vnmake him; and ye onely to obey, bearing with these straits that I now foreshew you, as with the finger of God, which lieth not in you to take off.

And will ye consider the very wordes of the text in order, as they are set downe, it shall plainely declare the obedience that the people owe to their King in all respects.

First, God commandeth Samuel to doe two things: the one, to grant the people their suit in giuing them a king; the other, to forewarne them, what some kings will doe vnto them, that they may not thereafter in their grudging and murmuring say, when they shal feele the snares here fore-spoken; We would neuer haue had a king of God, in case when we craued him, hee had let vs know how wee would haue beene vsed by him, as now we finde but ouer-late. And this is meant by these words:

Now therefore hearken vnto their voice: howbeit yet testifie vnto them, and shew them the maner of the King that shall rule over them.

And next, Samuel in execution of this commandement of God, hee likewise doeth two things.

First, hee declares vnto them, what points of justice and equitie their king will breake in his behauiour vnto them: And next he putteth them out of hope, that wearie as they will, they shall not haue leaue to shake off that yoke, which God through their importunitie hath laide vpon them. The points of equitie that the King shall breake vnto them, are expressed in these words:

11 He will take your sonnes, and appoint them to his Charets, and to be his horsemen, and some shall run before his Charet.
12 Also he will make them his captaines ouer thousands, and captaines ouer fifties, and to eare his ground, and to reape his haruest, and to make instruments of warre, and the things that serue for his charets.
13 He will also take your daughters, and make them Apothecaries, and Cookes, and Bakers.

The points of Justice, that hee shall breake vnto them, are expressed in these wordes:

14 Hee will take your fields, and your vineyards, and your best Olive trees, and give them to his servants.
15 And he will take the tenth of your seede, and of your vineyards, and give it to his Eunuches and to his servants: and also the tenth of your sheepe.

As if he would say; The best and noblest of your blood shal be compelled in slauish and seruile offices to serue him: And not content of his owne patrimonie, will make vp a rent to his owne vse out of your best lands, vineyards, orchards, and store of cattell: So as inuerting the Law of nature, and office of a King, your persons and the persons of your posteritie, together with your lands, and all that ye possesse shal serue his priuate vse, and inordinate appetite.

And as vnto the next point (which is his fore-warning them, that, weary as they will, they shall not haue leaue to shake off the yoke, which God thorow their importunity hath laid vpon them) it is expressed in these words:

18 And yee shall crie out at that day, because of your King whom yee haue chosen you: and the Lord will not heare you at that day.

As he would say; When ye shall finde these things in proofe that now I fore-warne you of, although you shall grudge and murmure, yet it shal not be lawful to you to cast it off, in respect it is not only the ordinance of God, but also your selues haue chosen him vnto you, thereby renouncing for euer all priuiledges, by your willing consent out of your hands, whereby in any time hereafter ye would claime, and call backe vnto your selues againe that power, which God shall not permit you to doe. And for further taking away of all excuse, and retraction of this their contract, after their consent to vnder-lie this yoke with all the burthens that hee hath declared vnto them, he craves their answere, and consent to his proposition: which appeareth by their answere, as it is expressed in these words:

19 Nay, but there shall be a King over vs. 20 And we also will be like all other nations: and our king shall iudge vs, and goe out before vs and fight our battels.

As if they would haue said; All your speeches and hard conditions shall not skarre vs, but we will take the good and euill of it vpon vs, and we will be content to beare whatsoever burthen it shal please our King to lay vpon vs, as well as other nations doe. And for the good we will get of him in fighting our battels, we will more patiently beare any burthen that shall please him to lay on vs.

Now then, since the erection of this Kingdome and Monarchie among the Iewes, and the law thereof may, and ought to bee a paterne to all Christian and well founded Monarchies, as beeing founded by God himselfe, who by his Oracle, and out of his owne mouth gaue the law thereof: what liberty can broiling spirits, and rebellious minds claime justly to against any Christian Monarchie; since they can claime to no greater libertie on their part, nor the people of God might haue done, and no greater tyranny was euer executed by any Prince or tyrant, whom they can object, nor was here fore-warned to the people of God, (and yet all rebellion countermanded vnto them) if tyrannizing ouer mens persons, sonnes, daughters and servants; redacting noble houses, and men, and women of noble blood, to slauish and seruile offices; and extortion, and spoile of their lands and goods to the princes owne priuate vse and commoditie, and of his courteours, and seruants, may be called a tyrannie?

...[Our Note: The ellipsis here includes text that can be found on pages 199 - 204 of King James' Workes. In this section, King James reasons out of the law of God (Old Testament and New Testament) concerning the duty that subjects owe to their sovereign in lawful commands.]

And the agreement of the Law of nature in this our ground with the Lawes and constitutions of God, and man, already alledged, will by two similitudes easily appeare. The King towards his people is rightly compared to a father of children, and to a head of a body composed of divers members: For as fathers, the good Princes, and Magistrates of the people of God acknowledged themselues to their subjects. And for all other well ruled Common-wealths, the stile of Pater patriae was euer, and is commonly vsed to Kings. And the proper office of a King towards his Subiects, agrees very wel with the office of the head towards the body, and all members thereof: For from the head, being the seate of Iudgement, proceedeth the care and foresight of guiding, and preventing all euill that may come to the body or any part thereof. The head cares for the body, so doeth the King for his people. As the discourse and direction flowes from the head, and the execution according thereunto belongs to the rest of the members, euery one according to their office: so is it betwixt a wise Prince, and his people. As the judgement comming from the head may not onely imploy the members, euery one in their owne office, as long as they are able for it; but likewise in case any of them be affected with any infirmitie must care and prouide for their remedy, in-case it be curable, and if otherwise, gar cut them off for feare of infecting of the rest: euen so is it betwixt the Prince, and his people. And as there is euer hope of curing any diseased member by the direction of the head, as long as it is whole; but by the contrary, if it be troubled, all the members are partakers of that Paine, so is it betwixt the Prince and his people.

And now first for the fathers part (whose naturall loue to his children I described in the first part of this my discourse, speaking of the dutie that Kings owe to their Subiects) consider, I pray you what duetie his children owe to him, & whether vpon any pretext whatsoeuer, it wil not be thought monstrous and vnnaturall to his sons, to rise vp against him, to control him at their appetite, and when they thinke good to sley him, or to cut him off, and adopt to themselues any other they please in his roome: Or can any pretence of wickednes or rigor on his part be a iust excuse for his children to put hand into him? And although wee see by the course of nature, that loue vseth to descend more then to ascend, in case it were trew, that the father hated and wronged the children neuer so much, will any man, endued with the least sponke of reason, thinke it lawfull for them to meet him with the line? Yea, suppose the father were furiously following his sonnes with a drawen sword, is it lawfull for them to turne and strike againe, or make any resistance but by flight? I thinke surely; if there were no more but the example of bruit beasts & unreasonable creatures, it may serue well enough to qualifie and proue this my argnment [sic]. We reade often the pietie that the Storkes haue to their olde and decayed parents: And generally wee know, that there are many sorts of beasts and fowles, that with violence and many bloody strokes will beat and banish their yong ones from them, how soone they perceive them to be able to fend themselves; but wee neuer read or heard of any resistance on their part, except among the vipers; which prooues such persons, as ought to be reasonable creatures, and yet unnaturally follow this example, to be endued with their viperous nature.

And for the similitude of the head and the body, it may very well fall out that the head will be forced to garre cut off some rotten member (as I haue already said) to keepe the rest of the body in integritie: but what state the body can be in, if the head, for any infirmitie that can fall to it, be cut off, I leaue it to the readers iudgement.

So as (to conclude this part) if the children may vpon any pretext that can be imagined, lawfully rise vp against their Father, cut him off, & choose any other whom they please in his roome; and if the body for the weale of it, may for any infirmitie that can be in the head, strike it off, then I cannot deny that the people may rebell, controll, and displace, or cut off their king at their owne pleasure, and vpon respects moouing them. And whether these similitudes represent better the office of a King, or the offices of Masters or Deacons of crafts, or Doctors in Physicke (which iolly comparisons are vsed by such writers as maintaine the contrary proposition) I leaue it also to the readers discretion.

And in case any doubts might arise in any part of this treatise, I wil (according to my promise) with the solution of foure principall and most weightie doubts, that the adversaries may object, conclude this discourse. And first it is casten vp by divers, that employ their pennes vpon Apologies for rebellions and treasons, that euery man is borne to carry such a naturall zeale and duety to his common-wealth, as to his mother; that seeing it so rent and deadly wounded, as whiles it will be by wicked and tyrannous Kings, good Citizens will be forced, for the naturall zeale and duety they owe to their owne natiue countrey, to put their hand to worke for freeing their common-wealth from such a pest.

Whereunto I giue two answeres: First, it is a sure Axiome in Theologie, that euill should not be done, that good may come of it: The wickednesse therefore of the King can neuer make them that are ordained to be judged by him, to become his Iudges. And if it be not lawfull to a priuate man to reuenge his priuate injury vpon his priuate aduersary (since God hath onely giuen the sword to the Magistrate) how much lesse is it lawfull to the people, or any part of them (who all are but priuate men, the authoritie being alwayes with the Magistrate, as I haue already proued) to take vpon them the vse of the sword, whom to it belongs not, against the publicke Magistrate, whom to onely it belongeth.

Next, in place of relieving the common-wealth out of distresse (which is their onely excuse and colour) they shall heape double distresse and desolation vpon it; and so their rebellion shall procure the contrary effects that they pretend it for: For a king cannot be imagined to be so vnruly and tyrannous, but the common-wealth will be kept in better order, notwithstanding thereof, by him, then it can be by his way-taking. For first, all sudden mutations are perillous in common-wealths, hope being thereby giuen to all bare men to set vp themselves, and flie with other mens feathers, the reines being loosed to all the insolencies that disordered people can commit by hope of impunitie, because of the loosenesse of all things.

And next, it is certaine that a king can neuer be so monstrously vicious, but hee will generally fauour justice, and maintaine some order, except in the particulars, wherein his inordinate lustes and passions cary him away; where by the contrary, no King being, nothing is vnlawfull to none: And so the olde opinion of the Philosophers prooues trew, That better it is to line in a Common-wealth, where nothing is lawfull, then where all things are lawfull to all men; the Common-wealth at that time resembling an vndanted young horse that hath casten his rider: For as the diuine Poet D v B A R T A S sayth, Better it were to suffer some disorder in the estate, and some spots in the Common-wealth, then in pretending to reforme, vtterly to overthrow the Republicke.

The second objection they ground vpon the curse that hangs ouer the common-wealth, where a wicked king reigneth: and, say they, there cannot be a more acceptable deed in the sight of God, nor more dutiful to their common-weale, then to free the countrey of such a curse, and vindicate to them their libertie, which is naturall to all creatures to craue.

Whereunto for answere, I grant indeed, that a wicked king is sent by God for a curse to his people, and a plague for their sinnes: but that it is lawfull to them to shake off that curse at their owne hand, which God hath laid on them, that I deny, and may so do justly. Will any deny that the king of Babel was a curse to the people of God, as was plainly fore-spoken and threatned vnto them in the prophecie of their captiuitie? And what was Nero to the Christian Church in his time? And yet Ieremy and Paul (as yee haue else heard) commanded them not onely to obey them, but heartily to pray for their welfare.

It is certaine then (as I haue already by the Law of God sufficiently proued) that patience, earnest prayers to God, and amendment of their lives, are the onely lawful meanes to moue God to relieue them of that heauie curse. As for vindicating to themselues their owne libertie, what lawfull power haue they to reuoke to themselues againe those priuiledges, which by their owne consent before were so fully put out of their hands? for if a Prince cannot justly bring backe againe to himself the priuiledges once bestowed by him or his predecessors vpon any state or ranke of his subjects; how much lesse may the subjects reaue out of the princes hand that superioritie, which he and his Predecessors haue so long brooked ouer them?

But the vnhappy iniquitie of the time, which hath oft times giuen ouer good successe to their treasonable attempts, furnisheth them the ground of their third objection: For, say they, the fortunate successe that God hath so oft giuen to such enterprises, prooueth plainely by the practice, that God fauoured the iustnesse of their quarrell.

To the which I answere, that it is trew indeed, that all the successe of battels, as well as other worldly things, lyeth onely in Gods hand: And therefore it is that in the Scripture he takes to himselfe the style of God of Hosts. But vpon that generall to conclude, that hee euer giues victory to the iust quarrell, would prooue the Philistims, and diuers other neighbour enemies of the people of God to haue oft times had the iust quarrel against the people of God, in respect of the many victories they obtained against them. And by that same argument they had also iust quarrell against the Arke of God: For they wan it in the field, and kept it long prisoner in their countrey. As likewise by all good Writers, as well Theologues, as other, the Duels and singular combats are disallowed; which are onely made vpon pretence, that GOD will kith thereby the justice of the quarrell: For wee must consider that the innocent partie is not innocent before God: And therefore God will make oft times them that haue the wrong side reuenge justly his quarrell; and when he hath done, cast his scourge in the fire; as he oft times did to his owne people, stirring vp and strengthening their enemies, while they were humbled in his sight, and then deliuered them in their hands. So God, as the great Iudge may justly punish his Deputie, and for his rebellion against him, stir vp his rebels to meet him with the like: And when it is done, the part of the instrument is no better then the diuels part is in tempting and torturing such as God committeth to him as his hangman to doe: Therefore, as I said in the beginning, it is oft times a very deceiueable argument, to iudge of the cause by the euent.

And the last objection is grounded vpon the mutuall paction and adstipulation (as they call it) betwixt the King and his people, at the time of his coronation: For there, say they, there is a mutuall paction, and contract bound vp, and sworne betwixt the king, and the people: Whereupon it followeth, that if the one part of the contract or the Indent bee broken vpon the Kings side, the people are no longer bound to keepe their part of it, but are thereby freed of their oath: For (say they) a contract betwixt two parties, of all Law frees the one partie, if the other breake vnto him.

As to this contract alledged made at the coronation of a King, although I deny any such contract to bee made then, especially containing such a clause irritant as they alledge; yet I confesse, that a king at his coronation, or at the entry to his kingdome, willingly promiseth to his people, to discharge honorably and trewly the office giuen him by God ouer them: But presuming that thereafter he breake his promise vnto them neuer so inexcusable; the question is, who should bee iudge of the breake, giuing vnto them, this contract were made vnto them neuer so sicker, according to their alleageance. I thinke no man that hath but the smallest entrance into the ciuill Law, will doubt that of all Law, either ciuil or municipal of any nation, a contract cannot be thought broken by the one partie, and so the other likewise to be freed therefro, except that first a lawfull triall and cognition be had by the ordinary Iudge of the breakers thereof: Or else euery man may be both party and Iudge in his owne cause; which is absurd once to be thought. Now in this contract (I say) betwixt the king and his people, God is doubtles the only Iudge, both because to him onely the king must make count of his administration (as is oft said before) as likewise by the oath in the coronation, God is made iudge and reuenger of the breakers: For in his presence, as only iudge of oaths, all oaths ought to be made. Then since God is the onely Iudge betwixt the two parties contractors, the cognition and reuenge must onely appertaine to him: It followes therefore of necessitie, that God must first giue sentence vpon the King that breaketh, before the people can thinke themselues freed of their oath. What justice then is it, that the partie shall be both iudge and partie, vsurping vpon himselfe the office of God, may by this argument easily appeare: And shall it lie in the hands of headlesse multitude, when they please to weary off subjection, to cast off the yoake of gouernement that God hath laid vpon them, to iudge and punish him, whom-by they should be judged and punished; and in that case, wherein by their violence they kythe themselues to be most passionate parties, to vse the office of an ungracious Iudge or Arbiter? Nay, to speake trewly of that case, as it stands betwixt the king and his people, none of them ought to judge of the others breake: For considering rightly the two parties at the time of their mutuall promise, the king is the one party, and the whole people in one body are the other party. And therfore since it is certaine, that a king, in case so it should fal out, that his people in one body had rebelled against him, hee should not in that case, as thinking himselfe free of his promise and oath, become an vtter enemy, and practice the wreake of his whole people and natiue country: although he ought justly to punish the principall authours and bellowes of that vniuersall rebellion: how much lesse then ought the people (that are alwaies subject vnto him, and naked of all authoritie on their part) presse to judge and ouerthrow him? otherwise the people, as the one partie contractors, shall no sooner challenge the king as breaker, but hee as soone shall judge them as breakers: so as the victors making the tyners the traitors (as our prouerbe is) the partie shall aye become both judge and partie in his owne particular, as I haue alreadie said.

And it is here likewise to be noted, that the duty and alleageance, which the people sweareth to their prince, is not only bound to themselues, but likewise to their lawfull heires and posterity, the lineall succession of crowns being begun among the people of God, and happily continued in divers Christian common-wealths: So as no objection either of heresie, or whatsoever priuate statute or law may free the people from their oath-giuing to their king, and his succession, established by the old fundamentall lawes of the kingdome: For, as hee is their heritable ouer-lord, and so by birth, not by any right in the coronation, commeth to his crowne; it is a like unlawful (the crowne euer standing full) to displace him that succeedeth thereto, as to elect the former: For at the very moment of the expiring of the king reigning, the nearest and lawful heire entreth in his place: And so to refuse him, or intrude another, is not to holde out vncomming in, but to expell and put out their righteous King. And I trust at this time whole France acknowledgeth the superstitious rebellion of the liguers, who vpon pretence of heresie, by force of armes held so long out, to the great desolation of their whole countrey, their natiue and righteous king from possessing of his owne crowne and naturall kingdome.

Not that by all this former discourse of mine, and Apologie for kings, I meane that whatsoever errors and intollerable abominations a souereigne prince commit, hee ought to escape all punishment, as if thereby the world were only ordained for kings, & they without controlment to turne it vpside down at their pleasure: but by the contrary, by remitting them to God (who is their onely ordinary Iudge) I remit them to the sorest and sharpest schoolemaster that can be deuised for them: for the further a king is preferred by God aboue all other ranks & degrees of men, and the higher that his seat is aboue theirs, the greater is his obligation to his maker. And therfore in case he forget himselfe (his vnthankfulnes being in the same measure of height) the sadder and sharper will his correction be; and according to the greatnes of the height he is in, the weight of his fall wil recompense the same: for the further that any person is obliged to God, his offence becomes and growes so much the greater, then it would be in any other. Ioues thunder-claps light oftner and sorer vpon the high & stately oakes, then on the low and supple willow trees: and the highest bench is sliddriest to sit vpon. Neither is it euer heard that any king forgets himselfe towards God, or in his vocation; but God with the greatnesse of the plague reuengeth the greatnes of his ingratitude: Neither thinke I by the force and argument of this my discourse so to perswade the people, that none will hereafter be raised vp, and rebell against wicked Princes. But remitting to the justice and providence of God to stirre vp such scourges as pleaseth him, for punishment of wicked kings (who made the very vermine and filthy dust of the earth to bridle the insolencie of proud Pharaoh) my onely purpose and intention in this treatise is to perswade, as farre as lieth in me, by these sure and infallible grounds, all such good Christian readers, as beare not onely the naked name of a Christian, but kith the fruites thereof in their daily forme of life, to keepe their hearts and hands free from such monstrous and vnnaturall rebellions, whensoeuer the wickednesse of a Prince shall procure the same at Gods hands: that, when it shall please God to cast such scourges of princes, and instruments of his fury in the fire, ye may stand vp with cleane handes, and unspotted consciences, hauing prooued your selues in all your actions trew Christians toward God, and dutifull subjects towards your King, hauing remitted the iudgement and punishment of all his wrongs to him, whom to onely of right it appertaineth.

But crauing at God, and hoping that God shall continue his blessing with vs, in not sending such fearefull desolation, I heartily wish our kings behauiour so to be, and continue among vs, as our God in earth, and louing Father, endued with such properties as I described a King in the first part of this Treatise. And that ye (my deare countreymen, and charitable readers) may presse by all meanes to procure the prosperitie and welfare of your King; that as hee must on the one part thinke all his earthly felicitie and happinesse grounded vpon your weale, caring more for himselfe for your sake then for his owne, thinking himselfe onely ordained for your weale; such holy and happy emulation may arise betwixt him and you, as his care for your quietnes, and your care for his honour and preseruation, may in all your actions daily striue together, that the Land may thinke themselues blessed with such a King, and the king may thinke himselfe most happy in ruling ouer so louing and obedient subjects.



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